A Brief History of New Year’s Day: Since ancient times, "New Year’s Day" has five different days.

Hello, 2022!
On the first day of the Gregorian calendar every year,
All mark the arrival of the new year,
People used to call this day "New Year’s Day".
Also known as "solar year".
So, with the first ray of sunshine in the morning,
People bless each other:
"Happy New Year’s Day!"
Qi Baishi’s "Reporting Peace"
This habit was formed when the western calendar was implemented in China. The initiator was Sun Yat-sen, who took office as interim president on January 1, 1912. In his oath of office, he ended with "New Year’s Day of the first year".
On September 27, 1949, China began to use the method of AD chronology, and officially designated January 1 as "New Year’s Day" and included it as a legal holiday.
This is New Year’s Day in modern times.
New Year’s Day in ancient times is another matter.
Yuan, the beginning of the number; Dan, the day comes out.
New Year’s Day usually refers to the first day of the first month in the calendar.
If you ask a question:
When is New Year’s Day in ancient China?
How to answer?
Some people say, isn’t this very simple? New Year’s Day in ancient times was the first day of the first month, which is now the Spring Festival.
Such an answer can only be scored 50 points. Although the ancient New Year’s Day is the first day of the first month of the year, it does not necessarily refer to the Spring Festival now.
Now the Spring Festival is the first day of the first month of the summer calendar, which takes January of the lunar calendar as the first month, so January 1st is New Year’s Day. However, many calendars were used in ancient China, and the first month of different periods and dynasties was different, so the day of the first day of the first month was also different.
The exact answer is:At that time, the calendar stipulated when it was January, and New Year’s Day was on the first day of that month.
That is to say,New Year’s Day is different with different calendars.
Song Zhao Chang’s "The Picture of the Year"
Making a calendar has always been a national event. As "Historical Records and Almanac" said: "When the king changes his surname, he must be cautious at the beginning, correct the new moon, be easy to take the color, push the Tianyuan, and follow the will."
The so-called "correcting the new moon" means modifying the calendar. "Push this Tianyuan, inherit the meaning", that is, calculate the starting point of the calendar to adapt to the weather.
How many kinds of calendars were there in ancient China? For thousands of years, our ancestors have created a variety of calendars since the Yellow Emperor’s "determination of ephemeris". According to three books, A Summary of Ancient Masters, Calendar General Records and the Evolution History of China Calendar System,There are 115 kinds of ancient calendars in China with names to test.
Among them, Huangdi calendar, Zhuan Xu calendar, Xia calendar, Yin calendar, Zhou calendar, Lu calendar, taichu calendar calendar, Santong calendar, Quarter calendar, Jingchu calendar, Daming calendar and Dayan calendar are all famous calendars in history.
But no matter how many calendars there were in ancient China,
The month of "Jianzheng" is basically fixed in the four months of the lunar calendar.
Corresponding to this, New Year’s Day also has four days.
1. November of the lunar calendar, that is, the month of midwinter, the month of the founding of the son. Legend has it that the Yellow Emperor calendar takes Jiazi month as January, and Jiazi month as January day. The second month is the November of the lunar calendar, so the New Year’s Day of the Yellow Emperor calendar is the first day of November.
Zhou replaces the weekly calendar, which also takes November as the first month, so the New Year’s Day of the Zhou Dynasty is also the first day of November.
2. January of the lunar calendar, that is, the month of Meng Chun and the month of Jian Yin. "Historical Records and Almanac" said: "The past was from ancient times, and the calendar was built in Meng Chun." Sima Qian’s era of "the past lived in ancient times" may refer to the era of Zhuan Xu, one of the "Five Emperors".
"Records of the Laws of Jin Dynasty" says: "Wei Wendi Huang junior high school, Taishi made Gao Tanglong discuss the calendar in detail, and made more reforms. ….. Dong Ba suggested:’ Zhuan Xu took the first month of Meng Chun as the yuan, and the first month was the first month of New Moon in beginning of spring. That is to say, Zhuan Xu takes Meng Chun as the first month and January 1st of the lunar calendar as New Year’s Day.
"Historical Records and Almanac" said: "Summer is in the first month." Dong Ba also said, "Summer is the day to inherit Yao and Shun, so we should go from Zhuan Xu. The Book of Rites was built in Meng Chun, and it is also called. "
It means that the Xia Dynasty inherited the calendar of Zhuan Xu and took Meng Chun as the first month, so the New Year’s Day of the Xia Dynasty is the first day of the lunar calendar.
The lunar calendar we are talking about now is actually the summer calendar, which shows that the summer calendar has the greatest influence on later calendars.
In 104 BC, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty launched taichu calendar, and officially decided to take the first month of the summer calendar as the beginning of the year and the first day of the first month of the summer calendar as New Year’s Day. Since then, although the calendar of our country has been revised many times, the beginning time of this year has not changed.
3. December of the lunar calendar, that is, the month of winter and the month of ugliness. "Historical Records and Almanac" said: "Yin is in December." The Shang Dynasty used the Yin calendar, which took the ugly month of December as the first month, so the New Year’s Day of the Shang Dynasty was the first day of the twelfth lunar month.
4. October of the lunar calendar is the month of Meng Dong and the month of Jian Hai. According to Historical Records, after Qin Shihuang unified China, he thought he was "rewarded with water virtue" and "in October".
During the Warring States Period, Zou Yan, a Yin-Yang scholar, put forward the theory of "Five Virtues Cycle", and explained the change of dynasties with "Five Elements Winning". At that time, people thought that the Zhou Dynasty was a "fire virtue", and Qin Shihuang thought that the dynasty he established was a "water virtue" because water overcame fire. Because the season corresponding to water is winter, and October is Meng Dong at the beginning of winter, Qin Shihuang took October of the lunar calendar as the first month and the first day of October as New Year’s Day.
Ren Bonian’s "Qing Dynasty Confessions"
After the establishment of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Gaozu said that "Northern China began to wait for me", that "Northern Hei Di" helped him to seize the world, and that he also thought that he was "rewarded by water virtue", so he still inherited the calendar of the Qin Dynasty. Later, Emperor Wen and Emperor Jing of Han Dynasty also used the calendar of Qin Dynasty, taking the first day of October as New Year’s Day, and it was not until Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty that it was changed to Xia Zheng.
It can be seen that New Year’s Day in ancient China,
There are the first day of October and the first day of November.
On the first day of December and the first day of January,
Plus the current Gregorian calendar on January 1,
There have been five different days on New Year’s Day since ancient times.
Wang Xuetao’s "Year of the DPRK"
On New Year’s Day in ancient times,
Also known as Yuan Day, Shang Day, Duan Day, Sui Dynasty, Lu Duan, etc.
It is the most important festival of the year.
Now, January 1st of the Gregorian calendar is designated as New Year’s Day.
And renamed the ancient New Year’s Day Spring Festival,
This is probably the biggest difference between ancient and modern New Year’s Day.
Wang Xuetao’s "Year of the DPRK"
Text: Guangzhou Daily Xinhua City reporter Zhong Kui
Photo: Guangzhou Daily Xinhua City reporter Zhong Kui (remake)
Dai Yujing, Editor of Guangzhou Daily Xinhua City

How many of these technologies from NASA have you seen?

  Today viewpoint

  Aerospace gives people a special feeling of "high cold", which reminds them of advanced fighter planes and magnificent space stations that ordinary people can’t see, touch or use.

  A few days ago, the well-known American website "GOBankingRates" took stock of 25 kinds of technologies originated from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in our daily life, which spread all over our "food, clothing, housing and transportation". They come from the distant sky, but they are convenient for our daily life.

  Food: baby milk powder, freeze-dried fruit, food safety packaging.

  At present, more than 90% of infant formula in the United States contains microalgae. It was originally the product of NASA research, the purpose of which was to test the potential use of algae as an oxygen "recycling agent" in space travel.

  Freeze-dried fruit is a common snack. However, the purpose of NASA’s development of freeze-drying technology is to make the fruits in the Apollo mission easier to carry, and this technology can maintain 98% nutrition with 20% quality.

  In order to ensure the safety and quality control method of space flight food development, NASA has now become a food industry standard to protect the food safety of consumers all over the world.

  Life: memory foam mattress, scratch-resistant lenses, anti-ultraviolet sunglasses, cordless vacuum cleaner, Nike air-cushion sports shoes, space blankets, ski boots.

  Comfortable memory foam mattress can fully fit the human body and relieve stress, which is necessary for many families. Memorable foam was not originally used to make mattresses. It was originally developed by NASA to cushion the impact of spacecraft landing on astronauts.

  Compared with ordinary glass, scratch-resistant lenses have a longer life. In fact, the scratch-resistant coating is a "by-product" accidentally discovered by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under NASA when researching the diamond hard coating for aerospace.

  In 1980s, two scientists from JPL developed a kind of welding glasses, which can absorb, filter and scatter the strong light emitted during welding. Later, this technology was widely used in anti-ultraviolet sunglasses.

  Initially, Black&Decker was ordered to develop a portable device for Apollo and Gemini missions, which was used to extract samples from below the surface of the moon. This technology has been improved to become a "cordless vacuum cleaner".

  Nike air-cushioned sneakers use the patent of "Blow Rubber Molding" obtained by M. Frank Rudy, a former engineer of NASA. The initial application target of this technology is spacesuit.

  The space blanket is insulated and heat-preserved, which is an essential item for survival in the wild and marathon. But it was originally developed by NASA to protect spacecraft and astronauts at low temperatures.

  In addition, the technology used by NASA in the joints of spacesuits has been improved and used in ski boots, which improves the athletes’ control ability in skiing.

  Home: swimming pool purification system, household heat insulation materials.

  In order to resist the extremely low space temperature, NASA made an insulating material called "radiation barrier" from aluminized polyester. According to JPL, aluminized polyester is now used in most household insulation materials.

  In 1960s, NASA developed an electrolytic silver iodide filter to provide clean drinking water for astronauts, and now it is widely used to purify swimming pools.

  Travel: aircraft deicing system, precision GPS, anti-skid groove on highway, better tires.

  According to NASA’s technology transfer plan, civil aircraft can fly in cold weather, mainly due to a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing developed by NASA.

  Many mobile phones are equipped with precision GPS technology developed by JPL, and its data comes from JPL global GPS receiver network. Even if there is no wireless connection, you can still use GPS positioning on your mobile phone.

  NASA’s Langley Research Center has developed anti-skid slot technology to prevent aircraft accidents on wet runways. Later, this technology was widely used in expressways.

  In 1970s, Goodyear Company developed a new tire material for NASA Viking Mars probe, which was used in parachute system. This technology was later used to improve ordinary tires, increasing their life by 10,000 miles.

  Electronic products: mobile phone camera, notebook computer, high-power solar cell, wireless headset, mouse, CAT scanner.

  In the 1990s, NASA asked JPL scientists to make a miniature camera that can be installed on spacecraft while ensuring the quality of photography. According to JPL, one-third of mobile phone cameras now use this technology.

  According to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "Grid Compass" is the first notebook computer in the world. It was first used in the space shuttle mission in 1983, which is one of the inventions of NASA.

  The crystalline silicon solar cells used in the home originally came from the lightweight solar energy system developed by the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology Alliance under NASA for electric aircraft.

  NASA has developed wireless headphones for astronauts to facilitate their communication. Now this technology has entered thousands of households.

  According to JPL, a NASA researcher developed a computer mouse in the 1960s, which allowed users to operate on the computer screen and made the computer more interactive.

  JPL initially developed a CAT scanner to scan aerospace components to get advanced digital images to detect defects. Now, it has become a commonly used medical instrument.

  Medical care: cochlear implant, invisible dental appliance, ear temperature thermometer.

  Adam Kiser, an engineer at Kennedy Space Center, used his working experience in electronic, sound and vibration sensor systems in the space shuttle project to develop early cochlear implants by using electric pulses instead of sound amplification technology.

  Compared with the traditional metal appliance, the invisible dental appliance is more beautiful. It is made of transparent polycrystalline alumina, which was originally developed by NASA to track heat-seeking missiles.

  Nowadays, many parents use ear thermometer to measure the temperature of sick babies or young children. According to JPL, this thermometer adopts infrared dissection technology invented by NASA and Diatek.

  There is always one of these 25 technologies that you have seen, touched and used. Aerospace technology can not only be used in high space, but also improve our quality of life after landing, which is one of the driving forces for human beings to explore and fly higher and farther.

  (Science and Technology Daily, Beijing, July 8 th)

Women in 2023 | Facing bravely and living positively is the way that every woman should pursue.

Cover journalist Chen Ganlu Xu Yingman Li Jiayu
In early winter in Chengdu, the ginkgo leaves are not completely yellow. The synchronized swimming world champions Jiang Wenwen and Jiang Tingting both appeared in Taikoo Li wearing thin jackets. After taking off their sneakers, putting on high heels and changing clothes, the two sisters made a group of fashion blockbusters. In the past year, studios, video studios, and various blockbusters going up and down the mountain were familiar with "daily life". Talking about the harvest and growth of this year, my sister Jiang Wenwen said: "We spent a lot of time in different fields this year, exploring things that we have never tried before, and actively feeling the challenges and happiness brought by different fields."
Promoting the Universiade and the Asian Games is the pride of China athletes.
The coming year 2023 is a "big year" for sports, and the summer Universiade in Chengdu comes as scheduled, which makes college students all over the world feel the charm of Chengdu. As Chengdu residents and ambassadors for the image promotion of Chengdu Universiade, Jiang Wenwen and Jiang Tingting have been very busy. "All kinds of promotion activities and public welfare activities have been busy." After the opening of the Chengdu Universiade, the sisters really felt the atmosphere when they were familiar with the stadium. "During the Universiade, we really felt the enthusiasm of our Chengdu people and the great changes brought by this event to our city."
In the autumn Asian Games in Hangzhou, the sisters also went to the scene. "The Asian Games actually have a complex for us. We started to let everyone know about the Asian Games in 2006, so the Asian Games is a very story-telling sports event for both of us." In the 2006 Doha Asian Games, Jiang Wenwen and Jiang Tingting, twin athletes, bloomed in the swimming pool, which shocked the synchronized swimming circle. It was also from Doha that they stepped onto the big stage of the World Championships, the World Cup and the Olympic Games. In the 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta, both of them were "upgraded" to their mothers’ two sisters who came back after giving birth, defeated the Japanese players in the double event, won the gold medal again after eight years, and won their sixth Asian Games gold medal.
Five years later, in Hangzhou, they became guests in the studio: "We watched many games, such as fencing and swimming, and then we also paid attention to the games of the older generation of athletes similar to us. It is also a rare learning process to communicate with them and share with athletes from different projects. "
The biggest emotion of the two major sports events is: "The two sports events were held in our motherland, and we are very proud to be athletes in China."
Youth volunteer service brings positive spirit to everyone.
Sharing on campus is no stranger to the two sisters. This year, as members of the Champion Volunteer Service Team, they entered the campus of Chengdu primary and secondary schools more frequently and participated in public welfare volunteer service. Not long ago, in the 44th track and field meeting of Chengdu No.7 Middle School, Jiang Wenwen shared the growth story and sports experience of the two sisters practicing flower swimming with all the teachers and students, and her sister Jiang Tingting lit the torch for the school sports meeting. Whether sharing or lighting the torch ceremony, the appearance of the two sisters made the children very excited. "I think that the athletes’ transformation to volunteer service is mainly through our own sportsmanship, growth experience, stories of setbacks and struggles to drive more teenagers and learn to grow through experience."
After retiring, the two sisters spent a lot of spare time on public welfare volunteer service. They are also directors of the Sichuan Youth Volunteers Association. "We just hope to use our positive spirit to lead and drive more young people to love sports and maintain an optimistic and positive attitude towards life."
As "Fengge women", Jiang Wenwen and Jiang Tingting are not absent from almost every session. "I think the activity of sealing women provides a very good platform for female friends, which gives us the opportunity to meet more outstanding female friends. I learn a lot from them through communication and sharing every year. "
In the new year, the two sisters actively embraced new changes and challenges and tried many new fields. "We spent a lot of time in different fields this year to explore things that we have never tried before and actively feel the challenges and happiness brought by different fields." This year, their "declaration of sealing the grid" has also gained new insights. My sister said: "Bravely facing a positive life state is a way of life that every woman must have and pursue." My sister said very tacitly, "I am the same. The only supplement is that I hope women can be more independent, have enough confidence in themselves and enjoy their own lifestyle and state independently."

[Video] Hu Jintao visits Ping-Pong Keys and gives gifts to women’s team members.

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On November 6th, Beijing time, let’s take a look at the European football situation yesterday morning.

1. Barcelona 2-0 almeria at home.

Levan missed a penalty, De Jong and Dembele each scored a goal, and Barcelona beat almeria 2-0 at home, winning four consecutive league games. Recently, Barcelona scored 10 goals in four league matches, but kept 0 goals.

After the game, 35-year-old Pique delivered a tearful farewell speech at Camp Nou, officially ending his 14-year career in Barcelona.

2, AC Milan home 2-1 spezia
Gill, 36, came off the bench in the 72nd minute and scored the winner in the 89th minute, helping AC Milan beat spezia 2-1 and scored the crucial 3 points, overtaking Atalanta and rising to the second place in Serie A..

Gill was sent off after taking off his clothes to celebrate the goal. It was his second yellow card in just seven minutes. He had just been warned by the referee for complaining too much.

3. Manchester City 2-1 Fulham at home

In the 95th minute, De Braune made a point, Harland hit a penalty kick, and 10-man Manchester City beat Fulham 2-1 at home. At first, they thought they were going to lose 2 points, but in the end, they got 3 points narrowly. Finally, they temporarily overtook Arsenal, who had one game less, by one point, and reached the top of the Premier League.

4, Bayern away 3-2 Hertha Berlin

Shu Bo-Mo Ting rang twice in two minutes. Bayern beat Hertha Berlin 3-2 away, winning 8 consecutive victories in all competitions and 4 consecutive victories in the Bundesliga, and temporarily surpassing Berlin by 2 points to reach the top position. In the last seven competitions, Shu Bo-Mo Ting scored nine goals for Bayern.

Bayern was chased by Hertha Berlin for 4 minutes with a 3-0 lead in the first half, but it was almost a draw by Hertha Berlin in the final stage of the second half.

5, Naples away 2-1 Atlanta

Osmain scored the winning goal, Elmas scored the winning goal, Napoli defeated Atalanta 2-1 away, won 9 consecutive victories in the league, and continued the unbeaten start of 13 rounds (11 wins and 2 draws), holding AC Milan at the top of the list by 6 points.

Running, skipping rope, climbing stairs … hurt your knee? Don’t worry about it. Look at the exercise guide for the best of both worlds here.

When it comes to exercise, many people are worried about hurting their knees.

So what kind of exercise hurts the knee the most?

The answer is

Sitting for a long time hurts your knees the most!

Long-term sedentary articular cartilage will gradually lose nutrition and "starve to death"

So exercise properly.

To prolong the life of the knee.

But the premise is to master scientific methods.

Avoid unnecessary damage.

Chen xingzuo

china japan friendship hospital

Deputy chief physician of orthopedics

Climb mountains and stairs

Risk of knee injury: ★★★★★★★

When going up the mountain (stairs), your knees will bear about three times your own weight.

When going down the mountain (stairs), the knee will not only bear the impact of the ground, but also increase the wear of the knee.

Therefore, it is not recommended to climb mountains and stairs as daily exercise.

Click on the picture below to see the correct posture of going up and down the stairs.

Key points of climbing without hurting knees:

The center of gravity is slightly forward when going up the mountain and slightly backward when going down the mountain.

Hold the railing to help or use the trekking pole.

Knee injury, good leg first when going upstairs, bad leg first when going downstairs.

Tip: Old people, overweight people and people with knee injuries are best to crawl less. Don’t insist on climbing if your knees are uncomfortable.

rope skipping

Risk of knee injury: ★★★☆☆☆

The risk of skipping rope to knee joint is mainly related to the venue.

Generally, the concrete floor downstairs in a residential area can’t provide an effective buffer for the impact force when skipping rope falls to the ground, and it is easy to hurt the knee for a long time.

Key points of skipping rope without hurting knees:

Choose plastic floor or cement floor to lay plastic mats.

When jumping, keep your feet close together to avoid bending your knees greatly.

The take-off height is 2 cm ~ 4 cm, so as to ensure that the skipping rope just passes through the soles of the feet.

Shake the rope with wrist strength and keep the big arm close to the torso.


Risk of knee injury: ★★☆☆☆

Jogging rarely causes knee injuries as long as it is not excessive.

A few people with obvious O-leg, X-leg deformity or knee joint disease and overweight should exercise reasonably according to the doctor’s advice.

Key points of running without hurting knees:

Warm up for 5-10 minutes before jogging, and run for 30-60 minutes every day, without paying too much attention to the distance.

Lean forward slightly, swing your arms naturally, and touch the ground with your forefoot.

Keep the speed "breathing, heartbeat is slightly faster but you can talk normally"

Plastic ground and asphalt road are selected for the site, and cement ground is not recommended.

Tip: Treadmill needs to be used with caution. If the setting is unreasonable and the speed is too fast, it is difficult for the average person to keep up with muscle strength and coordination after fatigue, but it is easy to get injured. In addition, the weight is too large, and the injured knee joint should be guided by a doctor.

At the same time, don’t be a "weekend hero" and suddenly go to exercise. Exercise should be gradual, gradually increase the amount, and the weekly increase should not exceed 10%. Don’t be a "weekend hero" and suddenly exercise.

a kind of traditional Chinese shadowboxing (tai chi chuan)

Risk of knee injury: ★★☆☆☆

Some people think that Tai Ji Chuan’s squats like "Ma Bu" will put too much pressure on his knees.

As a matter of fact, many scientific studies actually show that playing Tai Ji Chuan twice a week can not only protect the knee but also relieve psychological stress.

Key points of Tai Chi without hurting knees:

You need to warm up before playing Tai Ji Chuan.

Don’t squat too much in pursuit of beautiful movements.

You need to stand on one foot or rotate your body slowly.

Once knee discomfort occurs, don’t endure it and stop immediately.

Ride a bike

Risk of knee injury: ★★☆☆☆

When riding, people’s weight mainly presses on the seat cushion, and the force on the knees is relatively small, which also helps to strengthen the muscles around the joints.

However, if you ride too hard or take some wrong riding posture habits, it will also have certain health risks to your knees.

Key points of cycling without hurting knees:

Adjust the height of the seat to: when the foot steps on the lowest position, the knee joint slightly bends about 170.

Hold your head high while riding, keeping your knees and toes facing forward.

Keep riding at a constant speed, and don’t suddenly increase the speed by force.

Exert your thigh, and step on the pedal with the first third of the sole of your foot.

Tip: If there is obvious discomfort in front of the knee joint when riding a bicycle, it is necessary to minimize such activities.

Click on the picture below to see the details of riding a bike correctly.


Risk of knee injury: ★☆☆☆☆☆

When swimming, the body is basically parallel to the water surface, and the knee joint is basically free of load, so it is best for the knee joint.

However, patients with knee injuries should avoid breaststroke as much as possible. Water resistance will impact the knee joint when breaststroke kicks, and long-term high-intensity breaststroke may aggravate the symptoms.

Tip: Freestyle and backstroke are more recommended to protect the knee joint.

Can knee pads help maintain your knees?

Many functional knee pads only sell a conceptual thing, and one thing that all functional knee pads do is actually heating. Keeping warm is a very important part of knee joint maintenance, because the joint itself is afraid of wet and cold.

Therefore, normal knee pads have two main functions.

1. Keep the knee warm

2. Increase the stability of joints.

If the functional kneepad is non-invasive to the knee joint, it is actually no problem to use. However, some people may be allergic to drugs for knee pads, so they need to be careful.

Knee pads used in osteoarthritis, the most important function is to keep warm;

The main function of knee pads used in traumatic arthritis is to provide extra stability for joints;

Primary synovitis and gouty arthritis may not be particularly important for the use of knee pads.

point out

1. Don’t rely too much on knee pads.

Long-term dependence will lead to muscle atrophy inside the joint, which is actually more unfavorable for the protection of the whole joint.

Especially for relatively young people, we must not rely too much on knee pads, but should make muscle strength stronger.

2, the temperature must not be too high, not too long.

3. Observe whether there is drug allergy in time.

4. Don’t wear too tight knee pads.

Too tight kneepads can easily lead to blood stasis, resulting in poor blood return, which may lead to thrombotic diseases of lower limbs, which may even be fatal.

Guide to the risk of knee injury in sports

Risk of knee injury by climbing mountains and stairs: ★★★★★★★

Risk of knee injury by skipping rope: ★★★☆☆☆

Risk of knee injury due to jogging: ★★☆☆☆

Risk of knee injury in Tai Ji Chuan: ★★☆☆☆.

Risk of knee injury by cycling: ★★☆☆☆

Risk of knee injury in swimming: ★☆☆☆☆☆

Source: CCTV life circle

What is culture? Culture can nourish heart and ambition.

Culture is not knowledge, culture is the pursuit of beauty! Expressed in more concise words, it can be abbreviated as: culture is the sum of language and words.

"Culture" can be expressed in four sentences:

1. Self-cultivation rooted in the heart:

Self-cultivation can be divided into two main contents. First, knowledge literacy is reflected in a person’s IQ; The second is humanistic accomplishment, which is reflected in a person’s emotional intelligence. Therefore, self-cultivation is improved through learning and cultivation the day after tomorrow, so as to achieve the realm of internalization in the heart, externalization in behavior, and integration of knowledge and practice.

2, don’t need to remind others consciously:

Self-awareness means that you know something and take the initiative to do it. The difference between humans and animals is that there are two lives: one is the life of the body; The second is the life of culture. Take away the "culture" tendon, people are just ordinary animals, and people are conscious.

3. Freedom on the premise of constraint:

Freedom is self-determined, without restrictions and constraints. The freedom advocated is a kind of freedom that is harmless to others in society, and it is based on goodness and justice. We should realize that freedom not only means the desire to be liberated from bondage, but also means the responsibility to respect the value of others’ existence. Only within reasonable limits and by using reasonable means can we achieve real freedom.

4. Kindness for others:

The first paragraph of the classic of Chinese studies "San Zi Jing" says: "beginning of life, human nature is good. Sex is similar and learning is far away. " This means that when people are born, their nature is good and their temperament is very similar. But with the different changes and influences of their living environment, everyone’s habits will be different.

If you treat others well, others will treat you well. If you are full of kindness, you can warm the people around you. In daily life and work, it is necessary to be helpful and kind to others, unite with leaders and colleagues, actively create a relaxed and pleasant working atmosphere, and construct harmonious interpersonal relationships.

According to the traditional concept of human beings, culture is a social phenomenon, which is the product of long-term human creation, but also a historical phenomenon and the accumulation of human society and history. To be exact, culture is the way of thinking, values, lifestyle, behavior norms, art and culture, science and technology of a country or a nation that can be passed down and spread. It is a universally recognized ideology that can be passed down for human communication and a sublimation of perceptual knowledge and experience of the objective world.

Culture is the total system of symbols (mainly words, supplemented by images) and sounds (mainly language, supplemented by phonology and notes) created and commonly recognized and used by people in the process of constantly knowing and transforming themselves and nature.

Culture, the afterlife of this life, is the behavior of some people to carry out their life beliefs. When the noblest place in a person’s temperament blooms in all aspects of life, when a person’s aesthetic taste is enough to give life a kind of elegance and flavor-that is culture.

Culture is the best nourishment.

Everything in the world is supported.

The grass and trees are in the wild, and the rain and dew are born to help; Body and mind are in the study, and kissing ink can nourish them.

If the study is a person’s spiritual sanctuary, then the long thing in the study is the pearl in this sanctuary.

Ancestors said: when writing, you can raise pens, when grinding, you can raise ink, when washing, you can raise paper.

When the library is in the library, the supplies of the study room can be spent over the years; If you are always close to things, your body and mind will be spiritually influenced.

Culture is the best nourishment.

The nourishment of life comes from the pursuit of life interest, but also from the immersion of long things.

In the rooms of ancient literati in China, there must be pens, ink, paper and inkstone for the case, and piano, chess, books and paintings for the lent. Besides, there are all kinds of elegant things.

Nowadays, when we see these old things in the study from a distance, we can hear the excited voices of the ancients and see their sincere faces as long as we understand them with our hearts.

They camped in the study, or played in Tibet, or lived in seclusion … and nourished by culture, which built a bright world for us.

Playing with Wen Zang can nourish the heart.

Culture is formed over time, and the way to hide and play can nourish the heart.

Elegance and vulgarity are often the first criterion in the way literati look at artifacts.

Whenever you see a thing, you should judge its advantages and disadvantages, define the realm of elegance with the mind of a gentleman, and create a true rhyme and taste that conforms to the literati’s aesthetics.

There are many beautiful things in the room, and the world is better than Taoyuan.

In the name of the post, the truth is orderly, and Mo Chi is fragrant; Appreciate the boxing stone, clear the supply, exquisite smoke and clouds, and the muscles and bones are towering;

Product green grass and bamboo, elegant room, case into a secluded field; Virtual Lu Qing Kuang, sitting in the dust to release concerns, elegant things Ming Zhen Yun;

Open-minded, all wonderful; Xuan Lang in Zhang’s room is natural and unrestrained.

By writing things in style, you can nourish your spirit.

Gewu, when there is an aesthetic seed, nourishes itself from the traditional scale.

Ancestors said: the piano is silent, the staff is light, the cup is elegant, the bamboo is cold, and the stone is impressive …

In addition to leisure and entertainment, there is a poetic charm in the study, which makes people physically and mentally idle.

If you do what you want from your heart, you will be a man, and you will not be detained, but you will not go beyond the rules.

It is the highest state to understand the nature within a certain statute, conform to the rules and set an example for future generations.

From things and devices, from devices and people, we can make our conscience in things and nourish our true qi in edification.

Living in seclusion with literature can raise your ambition.

China’s philosophy is a philosophy of leisure, and living in leisure can raise one’s ambition.

As the poet Ni Si said:

Reading books on righteousness and reasoning, learning the words of calligraphy and calligraphy, sitting quietly, talking with friends, drinking half drunk, watering flowers and planting bamboo, listening to the piano and playing with cranes, burning incense and frying tea, and going to the city to watch the mountains mean playing chess. Apart from the above, although I have other pleasures, it is not easy for me.

Life is leisure, and long things are companions. Whether reading, posting, burning incense, playing the piano, playing chess or drinking tea, long things in the study are the carriers.

Getting a period of leisure and happiness constitutes a brilliant aesthetic philosophy, which affects the world’s pursuit of leisure and elegance.

Today, we are far away from the luxury of spirit, and today’s dignitaries and rich people do not have such a life, because cultural life is not only material wealth, but also spiritual nobility, which is a real affair.

In this sense, the pursuit of beauty with culture is to immerse beauty in life.

If life is a flower, then culture is soil. May you and I live in peace in our daily life and drop the seeds of beauty and bloom the most wonderful flower.


What is culture? On the word culture

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The word "culture": its appearance in China can be traced back to the Western Han Dynasty. "Culture" is not only a system of civilizing and educating, but also a system of rites and music. This understanding has been maintained in our country until modern times. The meaning of the word "culture" that we use today is obviously different from that of ancient times. It was introduced from the west through Japanese translation at the end of the 19th century. At that time, there was no definition of the word, and people only used the word "culture" according to their own understanding and needs. According to analysis, there were about three meanings at that time; First, it is synonymous with "civilization"; Second, in a broad sense, it includes spiritual and "civilization" contents; Three, narrow sense, refers to the spiritual content. To this day. The meaning of culture is broader; There are also many people who agree that culture refers to "ideology", and everything outside politics and economy is among them; Others make a broader understanding that everything created by human beings (that is, the integration of material civilization and spiritual civilization) is culture; Besides, some people have other explanations.

In view of the fact that scholars at home and abroad have different opinions on the concept of "culture", it has been suggested that the word "culture" may be a vague concept naturally, and it is difficult to make a clear and complete definition. Instead of pursuing a simple and precise definition, people should determine a flexible range from the perspective of set.

Although there are many definitions of culture, I personally think that it should be the same in many aspects, and we can roughly summarize it into the following three aspects;

First, ideology (also known as ideology) means people’s world outlook, way of thinking, religious beliefs, psychological characteristics, values, moral standards, cognitive ability and so on.

Second, the way of life, that is, people’s attitude towards their food, clothing, housing and transportation, marriage, birth, illness, family life and social production activities, and some forms taken in these aspects.

Third, spiritual materialized products, that is, from the formal point of view, are some material things, but through the material form, they can reflect people’s differences and changes in ideas.

From the above three parts, the scope of culture is basically outlined. But we should pay attention to: the word culture; It should be an organic whole, which is not only the simple addition of the contents of these three parts, but also the mutual influence and premise of the contents of these three parts, and should be organically combined according to a specific sequence.

People’s Daily: How much do you know about 55 common knowledge of China culture?

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China’s traditional culture is profound and has a long history.

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The People’s Daily has compiled 55 common knowledge of China culture, and those that can’t be answered should be collected quickly.

Culture is the lifeblood of a nation.

For thousands of years, precious cultural heritage has been handed down, which has cultivated the interest and character of China people.

Source: People’s Daily Weibo

Editor: Hang Yifan

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